Apple introduced the Macintosh IIcx on March 7, 1989. This new form factor was a smaller
and less expandable version of the Macintosh IIx that was released about six months earlier.
The versatile IIcx features 68030 performance, three NuBus expansion slots and a small,
The Macintosh IIx was introduced in September 1988 as an incremental update of the
Macintosh II. Apple replaced the 16 MHz 68020 processor and 68881 FPU on the Macintosh II
with a 16 MHz 68030 processor and 68882 FPU on the Macintosh IIx. The IIx is the first Mac
to include an FDHD (Floppy Disk, High Density) controller.
The first generation Macs included the original Macintosh, the Macintosh 512K, and the
Macintosh 512Ke. This article will briefly discuss the differences in these Macs, why their
production was short-lived, and what replaced them.
Apple introduced the Macintosh SE/30 on January 19, 1989. It was a quantum leap over its
processor the Macintosh SE. The "30" in SE/30 stood for the computer’s powerful 68030
processor. The SE/30 was obviously intended to be a high end Macintosh targeted at serious
computer users and professionals.
The Macintosh TV was introduced on October 25, 1993. It was aimed at first-time Mac
buyers, home users, and college students who wanted the "best of all worlds," a computer,
TV, and CD player rolled into one sleek, black box. Apple marketed the Mac TV primarily
through consumer electronics channels and sold it directly to college students at universities.
Apple introduced the Lisa 2 in January 1984. It was an upgraded version of the original Lisa,
which was introduced early in 1983. Billed as one of the line of "Apple 32 SuperMicros", the
Lisa 2 was sold as Apple’s business solution, supplanting the Apple III and sharing the
spotlight with its close cousin, the Macintosh.
The Macintosh II was introduced on March 2, 1987. The Macintosh II finally gave Mac users
what they had been asking for since the successful introduction of the original Macintosh in
1984, a color-capable, expandable Mac with a separate monitor.
Apple first entered the laptop market with the release of the Macintosh Portable on
September 20, 1989. The Portable was not a strong seller. Apple followed up the Portable
with the PowerBook 100, PowerBook 140, and PowerBook 170, which turned out to be so
successful that for a brief time Apple became the worldwide number one producer of laptop
computers. But the success of latter depended heavily on the lessons Apple learned from the
Apple began selling the iMac on October 17, 1998. The iMac had the effect of a lighting bolt
strike across the entire computer industry. Its success retuned Apple to profitability, spawned
many imitators, and ushered in the new age of the "Internet" computer.
Apple has throughout much of its history resisted licensing its technology. This resistance
has more than anything else fostered the creation of a separate and dominant industry
standard, Microsoft Windows. Apple resisted licensing the Macintosh architecture early on
when it would have made a difference in the development and direction of the young
computer industry. The company half-heartedly instituted a licensing program in the middle
1990s when it served only to cannibalize Apple’s operating revenues.
We obtained our copy of the famous Macintosh Newsweek insert from a seller on eBay. Our
copy was attached to the March 19, 1984 edition of Newsweek. The year was 1984 and Apple
had just announced the Macintosh on January 24. Apple marketing blitz would attempt to
take back the home market from IBM, whose PC had surpassed the Apple II in both the home
and business markets.
Apple introduced the Lisa computer in January 1983. It was Apple’s first attempt to sell a
computer designed from the bottom up with a graphical user interface (GUI). It was not
merely an attempt to throw a graphical operating environment over a text-line operating
system like early versions of Windows or early Apple II graphical operating environments. The
Lisa graphical operating system defined all aspects of the computer’s operation.
Apple was one of the most important creators of the home computer industry with its
introduction of the Apple II in the late 1970s. In 1984, nearly one year after the release of the
expensive and innovative Lisa computer, Apple redefined how people used home computers
with the introduction of the Macintosh, the industry’s first affordable graphical-based
computer. This article examines the way Apple introduced users to this revolutionary product
by examining portions of the Macintosh Owner’s Manual (officially titled "Macintosh"),
copyright 1984, Apple Computer, Inc.
The above chart is a pictorial view of Apple’s all-in-one Macintosh form factors from 1984 to
today. Apple defined the all-in-one concept with the original Macintosh 128K in 1984. Steve
Jobs helped shape this significant marketing position stressing the "computer as appliance"
principle that Apple has perpetuated for over twenty years.
Most serious Mac users would admit that OS X owes as much or more of its origins to NeXTSTEP, the NeXT OS, than classic Macintosh OS. Steve Jobs left Apple in 1985 after a struggle with then CEO, John Sculley, whose myopic view of the computer industry nearly destroyed Apple in the 1990s. Jobs went on to found NeXT, which failed to find widespread acceptance in the market place.
Apple Computer is responsible for the mouse interface standard used by today’s computers. Apple did not invent the mouse, but just like Apple’s popularization of the graphical operating system, they made the mouse a fundamental part of the personal computer. The Apple mouse has been evolving since the early days of Lisa and Apple II.
Apple has a documented history of creating innovation that has eventually led to profound changes in the computer industry. Unfortunately, the computer industry as whole has a history of stealing that innovation for the benefit of the Wintel monopoly. Apple history consists of a long string of events in which the company failed to move on emerging markets that it correctly identified years before its competitors.
The idea for the graphical user interface can be traced to Xerox’s Palo Alto Research Center (PARC). The mission of PARC was to create the future without worrying about the commercial viability of the project. PARC was a technological think tank.
By the end of 1985, Apple was a deeply troubled company. The Macintosh had not been the run-away success that the company predicted it would be. It also became apparent that despite the Herculean efforts made by the sales and marketing staffs, Apple was never going to be able to dislodge IBM from the business market.
John Warnock, a former computer scientist at the Xerox PARC, started Adobe Systems in 1982. The firm soon turned its attention to the creation of PostScript, a new page description language. PostScript revolutionized the computer world and soon made the Macintosh platform the de facto standard for desktop publishing.
I recently came across a book called Programmer’s Introduction to the Macintosh Family at a
small bookstore/collectors shop in Denton, Texas. The store has operated in Denton, Texas
for years next to the University of North Texas campus. They specialize in collectibles from
old books to computers. They are famous for their steady supply of old tech manuals, Atari
and Intellivision cartridges, and 80’s vintage Star Wars action figures.
Mac OS X is a derivation of OPENSTEP, which Apple inherited after the complete acquisition of
Steve Jobs’ NeXT Software, Inc. on February 4, 1997. Steve Jobs had left Apple in 1985 after
being ousted by then CEO John Sculley and started NeXT in 1987. To fully understand Jobs’
strange relationship with Apple during his years in the wilderness, it is necessary to go back
to the beginning and examine his role in Apple’s creation.